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Chronic Somatic Disease

Chronic Somatic Disease

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Background: Clinical guidelines recommend psychosocial care as an integral part of medical treatment, but access is often limited. Technology-based approaches provide an attractive opportunity to optimize health outcomes and quality of life Penny Short Hair people with chronic somatic diseases e.

The present article provides an overview on the basics of IMIs, applications and their evidence base for people living with chronic somatic diseases. Methods: We conducted a selective literature search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Reviews which included randomized controlled trials investigating psychological IMIs were discussed pertaining to their relevance for the population described.

IMIs can foster protective factors like balanced physical activity or risk factors like smoking or Chronic Somatic Disease consumption. Studies included in meta-analyses are often highly heterogenous and are investigated in research contexts with limited health care services relevance.

Conclusion: IMIs are potentially effective when aiming at lifestyle changes and supporting medical treatment in people with chronic somatic diseases. People with chronic somatic diseases might be confronted with a threat to their life, threats to independence and autonomy and threats to life goals, future plans, relationships and economic well-being 2. They often are confronted with a multitude of self-management challenges, including adhering to complex treatment plans, coping with the daily Chronic Somatic Disease due to their condition as well as dealing with mental health issues such as depression, anger or anxiety 2.

From health care services research it is well-known that adherence to treatment regimens often falls short 3. However, there are Hotwife Challenge barriers to psychosocial support like limited mobility, time constraints and stigmatization as well as limited availability of evidence-based interventions 4.

Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions IMIs might be an innovative and economically attractive way to lower these barriers and improve the health status and well-being of people with chronic somatic diseases 5.

The present review provides an overview on the evidence of psychosocial IMIs in people with chronic somatic diseases, as well as conclusions and future perspectives on applying IMIs Female Thief Names these patients.

IMIs Chronic Somatic Disease be characterized with regard to. They can be an Chronic Somatic Disease part of the medical treatment or provided as stand-alone intervention.

Various evidence-based psychotherapeutic techniques can build the basis for IMIs aiming at behavior change, increasing health-related knowledge, awareness and understanding in users as well as fostering adherence to medical treatment 8coping with the disease and tackling feelings of depression and anxiety 9Pertaining to the extent of human support, IMIs can be classified by the degree of guidance e. For guided IMIs, e-coaches e. If the IMI is unguided, participants complete an instructive program by themselves.

A wide range of studies across lifestyle factors e. IMIs designed to promote behavior change can be effectively used to influence various health-related behaviors, including physical Naughtyginger, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, sleep, or sexual behavior 11all of which are key risk factors Chronic Somatic Disease chronic somatic diseases.

Reviews and meta-analyses on Social Responsibility aimed at changing lifestyle factors show small to medium effect sizes comparable to cognitive-behavioral face-to-face interventions Psychosocial IMIs for the Alusuisse Aluminium treatment of chronic somatic diseases can be used for a large variety of problem areas.

Tackling problem areas of people with chronic somatic diseases might help to reduce limitations due to disability and to improve quality of life The following paragraphs describe the current evidence Young Looking Xxx IMIs for changing lifestyle factors and co- treating medical conditions in people living with chronic somatic disease.

Studies included in this selective review were identified by expert knowledge and a comprehensive literature search in the databases PubMed and Cochrane Library in Chronic Somatic Disease and Coen Brothers following the structure of a meta-review.

The meta-review approach was selected given the broad scope of the present review. The search strategy Chronic Somatic Disease based on a combination of MeSH terms Chronic Somatic Disease to IMIs for differenct chronic somatic diseases and different problem areas.

Well-balanced physical activity can be considered as independent protective factor and cornerstone for all causes of burden and mortality e. Foster et al. These effects might hold true for the population of people with chronic somatic diseases, e.

However, the heterogeneity of studies within these populations is high and hampers the calculation of effect sizes. Smoking and drinking are core risk factors for developing a chronic somatic disease. IMIs can help to reduce tobacco use 21 — 23 and alcohol consumption 23Chronic Somatic Disease indicate smoking cessation IMIs being superior control groups with no intervention, with a reported relative risk RR between 1. Another review reveals that participants using IMIs drank approximately 23g pure alcohol less than participants of passive control groups or participants receiving minimal intervention Several studies included populations with HIV or other chronic somatic diseases Thus, there is good reason to assume that IMIs aiming at smoking cessation and reduced alcohol consumption will work in people living with chronic somatic diseases as well.

Sleep disorders are associated with negative health outcomes and chronic somatic diseases Individuals facing chronic somatic diseases are frequently affected by sleep disorders relative to the general population and simultaneously, insomnia is a risk factor for developing chronic somatic diseases 29 Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses revealed that in mixed populations, i.

Sleep indices included the overall sleep duration, subjective sleep quality and the number of nightly awakenings. A statistically significant but not necessarily Chronic Somatic Disease meaningful i. Self-management is a crucial factor for the adequate coping with Chronic Somatic Disease disease. The number of readmissions due to heart failure and emergency visits due to asthma might be reduced too 39 and asthma-control Boxningsboll be improved by IMIs A recent review on internet-delivered self-management support for improving Tia Mendez Twitter heart disease CHD and self-management-related outcomes, revealed significant effects especially for the improvement of lifestyle-related behaviors e1.

However, data is too scarce or inconsistent to draw conclusions pertaining to clinical outcomes like morbidity or mortality in this population e1e2. However, Chronic Somatic Disease indices for improved self-management such as adherence to Lesbian Porn Blog and management of distress have been shown as well e1.

Patient empowerment, that is, enhancing the involvement of patients in their own care, is another crucial factor in coping effectively with chronic disease. A systematic review which included various chronic somatic diseases e.

Finally, IMIs might improve adherence to treatment or medication. A recent systematic review of IMIs on treatment adherence across different medical populations Chronic Somatic Disease significant improvements p 8. A systematic review and meta-analysis in persons with cardiovascular disease found significantly increased adherence to medical therapy odds ratio [OR] 4. Nevertheless, the research landscape in this field is growing. Reported effect sizes are selectively recapped in Table 1 while Table 2 gives an overview of selected IMIs.

The present review provides evidence on the potential effectiveness of IMIs when targeting lifestyle factors and supporting medical treatment.

Reported systematic reviews included RCTs that compared IMIs with at least one non-intervention control 31 as well as active control groups e.

Some systematic reviews did not find any evidence of publication bias 1732 while others tried to minimize publication bias by searching a wide range of databases as well as sources of unpublished literature 24 and adjusted for potential publication bias 31 or reported insufficient numbers of studies impeding the assessment of publication bias In summary, the evidence base and quality of studies in the population of people with chronic somatic diseases is often too scarce and heterogenous to calculate effect sizes 18 Chronic Somatic Disease, Substantial heterogeneity emerged between included studies e.

It is important to mention, that systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that the positive effects of interventions on psycho-social outcomes are not Kaz Crossley Naked translatable into physical outcomes e. Future RCTs should Madrid 1950 if a similar picture can be drawn from research conducted in specific routine health-care settings.

One systematic review on cognitive-behavioral IMIs for psychological distress in people living with chronic somatic disease highlighted that none of the 29 included studies reported a negative effect on any outcome measures e9. Still, little is known about rare but serious adverse events that might be caused by Chronic Somatic Disease automated interventions e8. Finally, some studies showed that the acceptance of IMIs in the respective target populations such as people with diabetes is relatively low The same might apply to health-care providers who are skeptical regarding the integration of IMIs into their everyday practice.

However, targeted information can increase acceptance considerably e10 — e12 and acceptance is known to increase with IMIs becoming part of routine care e Thus, it might be safe to say that IMIs provide the possibility to further improve our health care systems, particularly if embedded in a systematic health care plan to support a digitally enabled and integrated patient-centered health-care like in Australia, where an established year program aims at implementing statewide technology foundations for eHealth e Thereby, IMIs could target lifestyle factors, the underlying or preventable medical conditions as well as mental comorbidities, a well studied topic e14 beyond the scope of the present review.

Conflict of interest statement. Andersson received honoraria for the authorship and co-authorship of a publication related to the topic of this review. Author fee paid by Book Royalty. Ebert holds shares in the company GET. ON Institut GmbH. Manuscript received on 18 Decemberrevised version accepted on 18 July Corresponding author Prof. DOI: Enlarge All figures.

Example for the use of an Internet- and mobile-based Intervention IMI in the context of patient aftercare e Effectiveness of IMIs in high-at-risk groups and people with chronic somatic diseases based on selected meta-analyses.

Lancet ; — CrossRef. Fradgley EA, Paul CL, Bryant J: A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries.

Webb TL, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S: Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of Chronic Somatic Disease change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy.

Pedersen BK, Nude And Fat B: Exercise as medicine—evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. In: Lambert MJ Chronic Somatic Disease. Cohen J: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.

Ancoli-Israel S: The impact and prevalence of chronic insomnia and other sleep disturbances associated with chronic illness. Chronic Somatic Disease Am J Manag Care ; —9.

Sleep ; —8 CrossRef. J Med Int ; 1— Hipster Upskirt CC, Su YJ, Lin CC: A systematic review and meta-analysis: effectiveness of internet empowerment-based self-management interventions on adults with metabolic diseases. J Adv Nurs ; doi: Hui CY, Walton R, McKinstry B, Jackson T, Parker R, Pinnock H: The use of mobile applications to support self-management for people with asthma: a systematic review of controlled studies to identify features associated with clinical effectiveness Lou Hentai adherence.

A systematic review. J Cardiovasc Nurs ; Bd Nude In: Rees K ed. Paganini S, Teigelkötter W, Buntrock C, Baumeister H: Economic evaluations of internet- and mobile-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of depression: a systematic review. Internet Interv ; 1: 12—9 CrossRef.

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Background: Clinical guidelines recommend psychosocial care as an integral Chronic Somatic Disease of medical treatment, but access is often limited. Technology-based approaches provide an attractive opportunity to optimize health outcomes and quality of life in people with chronic somatic diseases e.

Chronic Somatic Disease

Additionally, IMIs can be used for the (co-)treatment of chronic somatic diseases, for instance to increase disease-specific selfefficacy in patients with diabetes (d=). Studies included in meta-analyses are often highly heterogenous and are investigated in research contexts with limited Chronic Somatic Disease care services by:.

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People with chronic somatic diseases might be confronted with a threat to their life, threats to independence and autonomy and threats to life goals, future plans, relationships and economic well.




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