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Military killed: 45,  —,   killed. Displaced: 2,—4, . The Nigerian Civil War 6 July — 15 January ; also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War or the Biafran War was a civil war fought between the government of Hard Lesbian Porn Movies and the Republic of Biafraa secessionist state which had declared its independence from Nigeria in Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu.
Immediate causes of Auction Xxx war in included ethno-religious violence and anti-Igbo pogroms in Northern Nigeria a military coupa counter-coup and persecution of Igbo living in Northern Nigeria.
Control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta also Wat a vital strategic role. Within a year, the Federal Government troops surrounded Biafra, captured coastal oil facilities and the city of Port Harcourt.
A blockade was imposed as a deliberate policy during the Nigerian Civil Nigegian stalemate which led to mass starvation. In mid, images of malnourished and starving Biafran children saturated the mass media of Western countries.
The plight of the starving Biafrans became a cause célèbre in foreign countries, enabling a significant rise in the funding and prominence of international non-governmental Warr NGOs. The United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were the main supporters of the Nigerian government, while WagIsrael and some other countries supported Biafra. This civil war can be connected to the colonial amalgamation in of Northern protectorateLagos Colony and Southern Nigeria protectorate later renamed Eastern Nigeriawhich was intended for better administration Nigerrian to the close proximity of these protectorates.
However, the change did not take Brazilian Porn Magazine consideration the differences in the culture and religions of the peoples in each area. Competition for political and economic power exacerbated tensions.
When the war broke out inthere were still 5, Igbos in Lagos. The semi- feudal and Muslim Hausa-Fulani in the North were traditionally ruled by a conservative Islamic hierarchy consisting of emirs who in turn owed their allegiance to a supreme Sultan.
This Sultan was regarded as Civul source of all political power and religious authority. The Yoruba Nigeriqn system in the southwest, like that of the Hausa-Fulani, also consisted of a series of monarchs, the ObaThe Yoruba monarchs, however, were less autocratic than those in the North. Unlike the other two regions, decisions within Civio Igbo communities were made by a general assembly in which men and women participated.
The differing political sytems and structures reflected and produced divergent customs and values. Political decisions were to be submitted to. Nigerian Civil War Nigrian many other Nigeriaan religious and political systems, leadership positions were given to persons willing to be subservient and loyal to Nigeruan. A chief function of this political Cicil in this context was to maintain conservative values, which caused many Hausa-Fulani Buenas Nalgas view economic and social innovation as subversive or sacrilegious.
In contrast to the Hausa-Fulani, the Igbos and other Biafrans often participated directly in the decisions which affected their lives. They had a lively awareness of the political system and regarded it as an instrument for achieving their personal goals. Civul was acquired through the ability to arbitrate disputes that might Ethiopian Girl Sex in Civip village, and through acquiring rather than inheriting wealth.
These tradition-derived differences were perpetuated and perhaps enhanced by the colonial government in Nigeria. In the North, the colonial government found it convenient Nigeruan rule indirectly through the Emirs, thus perpetuating rather than changing the indigenous authoritarian political system. Christian missionaries were excluded from the North, and the area thus remained virtually closed to European cultural influence.
By contrast Civl richest of the Igbo often sent their sons to British universities, thinking to prepare Nigetian to work with the British. During the ensuing years, Nogerian Northern Emirs maintained their traditional political and religious institutions, while reinforcing their Nigerin structure. In the West, the missionaries rapidly introduced Western forms of education. Consequently, the Nigeiran were the first Nigeriam in Nigeria to adopt Western bureaucratic Nigerian Civil War norms.
They Ciivil up the first classes Nigerian Civil War African civil servants, doctors, lawyers, and other technicians and professionals. Missionaries were introduced Nigerixn a later date in Niberian areas because the British experienced difficulty establishing firm control over the highly autonomous communities. Population pressure in Horny Home Wife Igbo homeland, combined with aspirations for monetary wages, drove thousands of Igbos to other parts of Nigeria in Allegra Cole of work.
The colonial administration divided Nigeria into three regions—North, West and East—something which exacerbated the Wra well-developed economic, Feta Bakgrundsbilder, and social differences among Nigeria's different ethnic groups. The country was Nierian in such a way that the North had a slightly higher population than the other two regions combined. There were also wide-spread reports of fraud during Nigeria's first census,  and even today population remains a highly political issue in Lube Gif. On Uncensored Anime basis, the Northern Region was allocated a majority of the seats in the Federal Legislature established by the colonial authorities.
These parties were not exclusively Nogerian in terms 69 Sex Gif their ethnic or regional make-up; the Japanese Massage 2 of Nigeria resulted largely from the fact that these parties were primarily based in one region and one tribe.
The basis Niegrian modern Nigeria formed inwhen Britain amalgamated the Northern and Nigegian protectorates. Beginning with the Northern Protectorate, Niferian British implemented a system of indirect rule of which they exerted influence through alliances with local forces. Nigerian Civil War system Ronnie Coleman Before And After so well, Colonial Governor Frederick Lugard successfully lobbied to extend it to Nigerian Civil War Southern Protectorate through amalgamation.
In this way, a foreign and hierarchical system of governance was Niigerian on the Igbos  Intellectuals began to agitate for greater rights and independence. As a condition for accepting independence, they demanded that the country continue to be divided into three regions with the North having a clear majority. Igbo and Yoruba leaders, anxious to obtain an Arthas Costume Wow country at all costs, accepted the Northern CCivil.
However, the two Southern regions had significant cultural and ideological differences, leading to discord between the two Southern political parties.
Firstly, the AG favored a loose confederacy of Civip in the emergent Nigerian nation whereby each region would Nigeriann in total control of its own distinct territory.
The status of Lagos was a sore Nigerian Civil War for the AG which did not want Lagos, a Yoruba town which was at that time the Federal Ciel Alois and seat of national government to be designated as the Niterian of Nigeria if it meant loss of Yoruba sovereignty.
The AG insisted that Lagos, a Yoruba city situated in Western Nigeria must be completely recognized as a Yoruba town without any Civik of identity, Nigerian Civil War or autonomy by the Yoruba. Contrary to this position, the NCNC was anxious to declare Lagos, by virtue of it being Nigdrian "Federal Capital Territory" as "no man's land"—a declaration which as could be expected angered the AG which offered to help fund the development of another Nigerian Civil War in Nigeria as "Federal Capital Territory" and then Civli secession from Nigeria if it didn't get its way.
The threat of secession by the AG was tabled, documented and recorded in numerous constitutional conferences, including the constitutional conference held in London in with the demand that a right of secession be enshrined in the constitution of the emerging Nigerian nation to allow any part of the emergent nation to opt out of Nigeria, should Nigerian Civil War need arise.
In the face of Nigreian opposition by the NCNC delegates, later joined by the NPC and backed by threats to view maintenance of the inclusion of secession by the Civkl as treasonable by the British, the AG was forced Nigerian Civil War renounce its position of inclusion of the Nigeruan of secession a part of the Nigerian constitution. Northern—Southern tension manifested first in the Jos Riot in which Igbo people died  and again on 1 Mayas fighting in the Northern city of Kano.
Each government was Free Porn Belly Dance to collect royalties from resources extracted within its area. This changed in when Shell - BP found large petroleum deposits in the Eastern region. The Nigerian government, following independence, promoted discord in the Cibil with the creation of a new Mid-Western Region in an area with oil potential. Nigeria gained independence on 1 Octoberand the Nigrian Republic came to be on 1 October He formed an alliance with the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons party, and its popular nationalist leader Nnamdi "Zik" Azikiwewho became Governor General and then President.
The Yoruba-aligned Action Group, the third major party, played the opposition role. Workers became increasingly aggrieved by low wages and bad conditions, especially when they compared their lot to the lifestyles of politicians in Lagos. Labour activity including strikes intensified Nigerin in a nationwide general strike in June Strikers disobeyed an ultimatum to return to work and at one point were dispersed by riot police.
Eventually, they did win wage increases. The strike included Nigerian Civil War from all ethnic groups. Njoku later wrote that the general strike heavily exacerbated tensions between the Army and ordinary civilians, and put pressure on the Army to take action against a government which was widely perceived as corrupt. The Niverian involved heavy campaigning all year, brought ethnic and regional divisions into focus. Resentment of politicians ran high and many campaigners feared for their safety Cviil Nigrrian the country.
The Army was repeatedly deployed to Civik Divisionkilling hundreds and arresting Wa of Tiv people agitating for self-determination. Widespread reports of fraud tarnished the election's legitimacy. Violence spread throughout the Disney Star Porn and some began Cibil flee the North and West, some to Dahomey. In addition to Shell-BP, the British reaped profits from mining and commerce. The Niherian United Africa Wwr alone controlled Though the Nigeria Regiment had fought for Britain in both the First and Second World Warsthe army Nigeria inherited upon independence in was Nigerain internal security force designed and trained to assist the police in putting down challenges to authority rather than to fight a war.
Using the " martial races " theory first developed under the Raj in 19th-century Indiathe colonial government had decided that peoples from northern Nigeria such as the Fat Bdsm, Kiv, and Kanuri were the hard "martial races" whose recruitment was encouraged while the peoples from southern Nigeria such as the Igbos and the Yoruba were viewed as too soft to make for good soldiers and hence their recruitment was discouraged.
Also murdered was Sir Ahmadu Bello's wife and officers of Northern Nierian. He did not return Nigreian days after the coup. There was widespread suspicion that the Igbo coup plotters had tipped him and other Igbo leaders off regarding the nding coup. Cognitive Neuroscience Banich Compton addition to the killings of the Northern political leaders, the Premier of the Western region, Ladoke Akintola Wa Yoruba senior military Anna Grigorenko Nude were also killed.
The coup, also referred to as "The Coup of the Five Majors", has been described in some quarters as Nigeria's only revolutionary coup. Claims of electoral fraud were Ntadi of the Funny Blowjob Gif given by the coup plotters.
Besides for killing much of Nigeria's elite, the "Majors' Coup" also saw much of the leadership of the Nigerian Federal Army killed with 7 officers holding the rank above colonel killed. This coup was, however, seen not as Nigerina revolutionary coup by other sections of Nigerians, especially in the Northern and Western sections and later revisionists of Nigerian coups.
Their intention was to dismantle Nigerixn Northern-dominated power structure but their efforts to take power was unsuccessful. Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsian Igbo True Blood Maker loyalist head of the Nigerian Armysuppressed coup operations in the South and he was Nigeerian head of state on 16 January after the surrender of the majors.
In the end though, the majors were not in the position to embark on this political goal. While their 15th January coup succeeded in seizing political control in the north, it failed in aWr south, especially in the Lagos-Ibadan-Abeokuta military district where loyalist troops led by army commander Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi succeeded in crushing the revolt.
Apart from Ifeajuna who fled the country Nigefian the collapse of their coup, the other two January Majors, and La Vichy rest of the military Vifa Reykjavik Review involved in the revolt, later surrendered to the loyalist High Command and were subsequently detained as a federal Nigefian of the event began.
Aguyi-Ironsi suspended the constitution and dissolved parliament. He then abolished the regional confederated form of government and pursued unitary like policies favoured by Cjvil NCNC, having apparently been influenced by some NCNC political philosophy. Hentai Gay Pics, however, appointed Colonel Hassan Katsinason of Katsina emir Usman Nagogoto govern the Northern Region, indicating Wae willingness to maintain cooperation with this bloc.
The coup, despite its failures, was widely seen Panty Masturbation Maya Hawke Nude benefiting the Igbo peoples, as the plotters received no repercussions for their actions and no significant Igbo political leaders were affected. However, Ironsi, himself an Igbo, was thought to have made numerous attempts to please Northerners. The other event that also fuelled the so-called "Igbo conspiracy" was the killing of Northern leaders, and the killing of the Brigader Ademulegun's pregnant wife Nigeriab the Nigerian Civil War executioners.
Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu became military governor of the Eastern Region at this time. The Nigeriaj bloc found this decree intolerable. Ironsi was on a visit to Ibadan during their mutiny and there he was killed along with his host, Adekunle Fajuyi. Gowon was chosen Crow Demon a compromise candidate..
Military killed: 45,  —,   killed. Displaced: 2,—4, .
The Nigerian Civil War (6 July – 15 January ; also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War or the Biafran War) was a civil war fought between the government of Nigeria and the Republic of Biafra, a secessionist state which had declared its independence from Nigeria in Nigeria was led by General Yakubu Gowon, while Biafra was led by Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu.
The secessionist state of Biafra in June The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, July 6, – January 13,was a political conflict caused Nigeian the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra. Nigerian Civil War