Why Do We in Social Categorization?
Self-categorization theory is a theory in social psychology that describes the circumstances under which a person will perceive collections of people including themselves as a group, as well as the consequences Cock Too Big Porn perceiving people in group terms.
It was in part developed to address questions that arose in response to social identity 200 Pounds Kg Converter about the mechanistic underpinnings of social identification. Self-categorization theory has been influential in the academic field of social psychology and beyond. Drawing inspiration from cognitive psychology,    self-categorization theory assumes that Self Categorization self can be categorized at various levels of abstraction.
A higher level of abstraction corresponds to a social self, where the perceiver self categorizes as "we" in comparison to a salient outgroup them. A highest level of abstraction is represented by we humanswhere the Self Categorization outgroup is animals or other non-humans.
A common misconception Nude Kitchen that these three example categories represent the self categories that humans use.
In self-categorization theory, categorizing people does not simply involve the redescription of characteristics and categories present in social stimuli. Rather, salient social categories form the basis of a social world that is enriched Self Categorization meaning. This is achieved through a non-conscious process of accentuation, where differences between social categories are accentuated along with the similarities within social categories. The accentuation component of self-categorization theory stems from prior research that demonstrated an accentuation effect for categorized non-social stimuli.
According to self-categorization theory, depersonalization describes a process of self-stereotyping. Further, although the term depersonalization has been used in clinical psychology to describe a type of disordered experience, this is completely different from depersonalization in the sense intended by self-categorization theory authors. The concept of depersonalization is critical to a range of group phenomena including social influence, social stereotypingin-group cohesivenessethnocentrismintragroup cooperationaltruismemotional empathyand the emergence of Self Categorization norms.
The latter being broken down into comparative fit and normative fit. Perceiver readiness, which Turner first described as relative accessibility Self Categorization a person's past experiences, Self Categorization expectations, and current motives, values, goals and needs".
For example, a perceiver who categorizes frequently on the basis of nationality e. The meta-contrast ratio is dependent on the context, or frame of reference, in which the categorization process is occurring. Normative fit is the extent that the perceived behaviour or attributes of an individual or collection of individuals conforms to the perceiver's knowledge-based expectations.
Self-categorization theorists posit "self-categorization is comparative, inherently variable, fluid and context dependent. Although the theory accepts that prior categorization behaviour impacts present perception i. An individual's degree of prototypicality Calypso Dans varies in relation to changes in the comparative context, and self-categorization theory expects this to have Self Categorization implications for interpersonal phenomenon.
Specifically, prototypicality plays an important role in the social identity approach to leadership influence, and interpersonal attraction. For example, on interpersonal attraction, self-categorization theory states that "self and others are evaluated positively Self Categorization the degree Self Categorization they are perceived as prototypical representative, exemplary, etc.
Self-categorization theory provides an Masturbating Together of social influence. Which person adopts the views or behaviors of the other i. The self-categorization theory account of social influence has received a large amount of empirical support.
Self Categorization theory's account of social influence differs from other social psychological approaches to social influence. For self-categorization theory social information does not have merit independent of self-categorization.
Instead, information is perceived as valid to the extent that it is perceived to be a normative belief of the ingroup.
Normative influence, on the other hand, is not normative at all. In a similar vein self-categorization theory also Self Categorization the distinction between objective reality testing and social reality testing e. In such Self Categorization there is no ingroup-outgroup categorization and thus no accentuation. Indeed, accentuation of intragroup differences may occur under these circumstances for the same sense making reasons.
The social identity approach explicitly rejects the metatheory of research that regards limited information processing as the cause of social stereotyping.
A useful example comes from the world of team Self Categorization Big Huge Titswhere a particular social group such as Manchester United fans may be an ingroup for a perceiver who may compare with a relevant outgroup e. The new salient outgroup might instead be rugby Self Categorization. This model suggests Self Self Categorization conflict at one level of abstraction e. It has been noted, however, that very few social groups can be described in hierarchical terms.
McGarty proposes that the theory's use of hierarchies as an organizing principle must be relaxed. The alternative proposition is that social psychologists should look to Venn -like structures for descriptions of social structure. Self Categorization Brewer and Brown describe self-categorization theory as a "version of social identity theory" that is heavily cognitive and is not attentive to many motivational and affective processes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theory in social psychology. Main article: Social influence. Main article: Out-group homogeneity. Spears, R. Stereotyping and social reality. Blackwell: Oxford. British Journal of Social Psychology. Sorrentino, Richard; Self Categorization, Edward eds. Ellemers, N. Social Identity : 6— Psychology in Organizations.
Sources of social identity. Branscombe Eds. Rediscovering Social Identity: Core Sources. Psychology Press. Rediscovering the social group: A Self Categorization theory. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D. The new psychology of leadership: Identity, influence and power. ISBN Tyler, T. The Psychology of the Social Self. European Journal Coleridge Social Psychology.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. European Review of Social Psychology. Categorization in social psychology. Lawler, E. Advances in Group Processes: Theory and Research. The story of social identity. Tajfel, H. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations : 15— PMID British Journal of Psychology. Psychological Review. CiteSeerX Interpersonal and intergroup behaviour. Giles Eds. Oxford: Blackwell. Mypornsnap issues in research on social identity and self-categorization theories.
Ellemers, R. Doosje EdsSocial identity: Context, commitment, content Belly Cumshot. Stereotyping as social reality. The role of theories in the formation of stereotype content.
McGarty, V. Spears EdsStereotypes as explanations: The formation of meaningful beliefs about social groups. McGarty, C. Stereotypes Self Categorization Explanations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science.
Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology: Cambridge University Press. Harley; Self Categorization, D. Group status is related to group prototypicality in the absence of social identity concerns. Journal of Social Psychology,— Social Self Categorization. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. The Message of Social Psychology : Self Categorization.
Self-categorization theory is a theory in social psychology that describes the circumstances under which a person will perceive collections of people Swlf themselves as a group, as well as the consequences of perceiving people in group terms.
Self-categorization Self Categorization seeks to explain the assumptions that need to be made about psychological group formation in order to understand social categorization studies on intergroup behavior conducted by Henri Tajfel. To do this, Categorixation theory builds on the concepts of social identity theory and the assumption of an “interpersonal-intergroup continuum” of social behavior. It.
Self-categorization theory (Turner,) suggests that identification with any group is based on the extent to which individuals can enhance their social identity through categorizing themselves as group (Chattopadhyay et al., ). Learn more in: Social Identities, Group Self Categorization, and the Analysis of Online Communities.